1517) pelo escritor florentino Nicolau Maquiavel, mais conhecido como o autor d'O Príncipe.Foram publicados postumamente, em 1531. This disunity resulted in Rome evolving into a Republic. Machiavelli then explains this idea and states that this greatly changes the way a city is viewed, in particular for Rome. Perché rileggere oggi i “Discorsi sopra la prima Deca di Tito Livio” di Niccolò Machiavelli? Chapter 21 is titled "Whence it arises that with a different mode of proceeding Hannibal produced those same effects in Italy as Scipio did in Spain. Discorsi sopra la prima deca di Tito Livio. His humbleness or "poverty" became something future Romans tried to emulate. "[61] He recalls the story of the great Cincinnatus, who, when the Rome was in grave danger, was made dictator by the Senate and saved the Republic. Voto di Luigi XIII (1824) And truly, whoever does otherwise, most often ruins himself and his fatherland. [77], In Chapter 36, Machiavelli tackles "The causes why the French have been are still judged in fights at the beginning as more than men and later as less than women. Perché in quello io ho espresso La Libreria Humanitas-Kretzulescu di Bucarest ospita il 12 novembre un evento di eccezione: la presentazione della prima traduzione romena dei Discorsi sopra la prima deca di Tito Livio di Niccolò Machiavelli, attesa da decenni nel nostro Paese. Discourses on Livy. Chapter 23 talks about how much the Romans, in judging subjects for some accidents that necessitated such judgment, fled from the middle way (which he criticizes) in regards to punishments. He believes that the Gauls' aggression was necessary, "if one wished that that it be reborn and, by being reborn, regain new life and new virtue, and regain the observance of religion and justice, which were beginning to be tainted in it. For Manlius commanded his soldiers with every kind of severity...Valerius, on the other hand, dealt with them with every humane mode and means and full of a familiar domesticity. The Gauls were quick to start fights but in actual combat failed spectacularly. He declares his intention to overcome this view of the ancient world by examining Livy and modern politics. Chapter 17 talks about how much artillery should be esteemed by armies in the present times, and whether the opinion universally held of it is true. [13] Machiavelli cites an example from Roman history: when the Gauls, referring to them as the French, sacked Rome in 387 BC. Niccolò Machiavelli - Discorsi sopra la prima Deca di Tito Livio (1531) Libro primo Capitolo 9. Hence the prince must take courage to use these extraordinary means when necessary, and should yet take care not to miss any chance which offers of establishing his cause with humanity, kindness, and rewards, not taking as an absolute rule what Machiavelli says, who was always extremely partial to extraordinary and violent methods. Chapter 19 talks about how the acquisitions by Republics that are not well ordered and that do not proceed according to Roman virtue are for their ruin, not their exaltation. [76], Chapter 35 concerns "What dangers are borne in making oneself head in counseling a thing; and the more it has of the extraordinary, the greater are the dangers incurred in it. He explains that the Romans were not corrupt when they regained their freedom and could thus keep it. The Court of Rome sternly prohibited his book. Dalla storiografia antica ai Discorsi di Machiavelli, «Rivista storica italiana», 2012, 124, pp. "[13] Romans had lost sight of "the other good institutions ordered by Romulus and by other prudent princes than was reasonable and necessary to maintain their free way of life. I Discorsi sopra la prima Deca di Tito Livio sono un'opera di Niccolò Machiavelli, frutto di una lunga elaborazione durata dal 1513 al 1519, anno di morte di uno dei due dedicatari dell'opera; in ogni caso, non si può escludere che una prima idea dell'opera possa risalire anche agli anni della segreteria a Firenze. 709 II concetto di ((corruzione)) nei > di fattori esterni allo Stato, che sono anche i piu' pericolosi, oppure di fattori interni: E quanto a questi, conviene che nasca o da una legge, la quale spesso rivegga il conto agli uomini che sono in quel corpo; o veramente da uno uomo buono che Moving on, he says that a republic has the opportunity to emerge as an empire, like Rome, or just maintain what it is. I campi obbligatori sono contrassegnati *. "[45] Machiavelli references an incident in Roman history when the Romans created four tribunes with consular power to control the colony of Fidenae. Mostra Commenti [67] Machiavelli relates this belief held by Roman rulers to a quote from Lorenzo de' Medici: "And that which the lord does, many do later; For all eyes are turned to the lord. "[21] It is in a prince's interests to rule well for "when men are governed well they do not seek or wish for any other freedom. The first two books (but not the third) are introduced by unnumbered prefaces. "[76] Machiavelli brings up the example of Titus Manlius who, upon rescuing his father, the "filial piety"[76] displayed inspired the people and led to Titus Manlius being put in second command of the tribunes of the legions. Molti hanno avuta opinione, ed in tra' quali Plutarco, gravissimo scrittore, che 'l popolo romano nello acquistare lo imperio fosse più favorito dalla fortuna che dalla virtù. Machiavelli writes that "property and honor are two things that offend men more than any other offense, from which the prince should guard himself. He talks about the different advantages to seizing towns in different ways, both weighing the pros and cons such as cost and efficiency. The modern examples of these kind men are few, but Machiavelli cites Livy's example of "the conspiracy made against Hieronymus, king of Syracuse, in which Theodorus, one of the conspirators, was taken and with great virtue concealed all the conspirators and accused the friends of the king". Ora, Giorgio Cadoni rimprovera a un mio precedente contributo pubblicato su questo sito di non aver tenuto presente che il fine della dottrina del «farsi compagni» espressa nei Discorsi sopra la prima deca di Tito Livio è unicamente la conquista, nonché varie altre cose. Innanzi tutto perché è una delle prime opere politiche in italiano volgare e non in latino. [92] Due to the expediency of this fix, and the fact that it was well received by the people of Rome, he gained the name "Maximus". Discorsi sopra la prima Deca di Tito Livio Niccolò Machiavelli Niccolò Machiavelli a Zanobi Buondelmonti e Cosimo Rucellai salute. He and his fatherland prospered while the times were comfortable to the mode of proceeding; but as times came later when he needed to break with patience and humility, he did not know how to do it, so that he together with his fatherland were ruined. They attacked the enemy in two entirely different manners, one slow and defensive, the other exhausting his army in a furious manner. Faccio perciò seguire qui alcune precisazioni di merito, … "[50] Close to the end of the Roman civil war between Brutus and Cassius and Marc Antony and Octavian, Brutus won the battle on his wing but Cassius believed that Brutus had actually lost. They valued these men and what they did so much that they were willing to give free commissions in order to show them how they felt about them. "[44] Such actions would control the morale of the army. Mostra solo questa edizione… 79%: Machiavelli, Niccolo: Discorsi Sopra La Prima Deca Di Tito Livio (Italian Edition) (ISBN: 9781975631994) Createspace … "[63] He raises the example of Lucretia, whose rape by Tarquin the Proud's son ultimately led the exile of the Tarquin family from Rome and destruction of the Roman monarchy. 12x19x(5+4) cm , Isbn 978-88-02-07262-3 Clearly they did wrong, and one does not need that kind of negative influence in one's life. "[53] When the Roman Scipio Africanus entered Spain, his humanity and mercy immediately made the entire province friendly to him. "[23] Of honors taken away from men, women are incredibly important. Spiegazione e commento dei "Discorsi sopra la prima deca di Tito Livio" di Niccolò Machiavelli, a cura di Alessandro Mazzini. Niccolò Machiavelli nasce a Firenze nel 1469. Mostra solo questa edizione… 53%: Machiavelli, Niccolò: Discorsi sopra la prima Deca di Tito Livio (ISBN: 9781477662502) 2012, IN INGLESE, Editore: Createspace Independent … [54] Machiavelli believes such things occurred because "men are desirous of new things, so much that most often those who are well off desire newness as much as those who are badly off...this desire makes the doors open to everyone who makes himself head of an innovation in a province. Io vi mando uno presente, il quale, se non corrisponde agli obblighi che io ho con voi, è tale, sanza dubbio, quale ha potuto Niccolò Machiavelli mandarvi maggiore. He traces this to an improper reading of history that suggests that imitation of ancient political virtue is impossible. "[67] A king should not punish his citizens for pillaging in war when he is himself a known pillager. For these things, "alterations are for safety that lead them back toward their beginnings. Esempi. He then conveys that having a dictatorial authority was beneficial for the City of Rome because a republic cannot always make the quick decisions demanded by a crisis, and in these cases one person can do a better job than the rest. Although the mode of seizing the kingdom had been extraordinary and hateful, nonetheless, if he had observed the ancient orders of the other kings, he would have been endured and would not have excited the senate and plebs against him so as to take the state away from him. I discorsi sopra la prima Deca di Tito Livio (1513-1518) Mentre il Principe è un'opera unitaria, i Discorsi già dal titolo suggeriscono l'idea di una serie di divagazioni, a partire da Ab Urbe Condita (della fondazione di Roma) dello storico latino Tito Livio. Nei "Discorsi sopra la prima deca di Tito Livio" Machiavelli legge il decadente presente politico nella prospettiva della storia romana come storia ideale eterna. [2], Machiavelli notes that Rome's actions as recounted by Livy proceeded either by "public counsel" or by "private counsel," and that they concerned either things inside the city or things outside the city, yielding four possible combinations. Discorsi sopra la prima deca di tito livio bur biblioteca (Disponibile) Angeli e angioletti, arcangeli e cherubini, messaggeri celesti e guerrieri alati, ma anche putti, amorini e cupidi popolano l'arte figurativa di ogni tempo e paese. "[69], The heading for Chapter 31 states "Strong republics and excellent men retain the same spirit and their same dignity in every fortune. [2] Machiavelli says that the first book will discuss things that happened inside of Rome as the result of public counsel (I 1.6), the second, decisions made by the Roman people pertaining to the increase of its empire (II Pr.3), and the third, how the actions of particular men made Rome great (III 1.6). "[13] He refers to the period before the sacking, when the Roman tribunes were given consular power and "they did not observe any religious ceremony. Noté /5. "[30] Machiavelli cites the bloodless expulsion of the Tarquins from Ancient Rome and from his own period, the expulsion of the Medici family in 1494, as examples of such nonviolent changes. "[43] This chapter concerns sudden events that may happen in the midst of heated battle. Dangers are found in conspiracies at three times: before, in the deed, and after. Machiavelli explains that Livy stated that people are strong together, but weak when alone, citing the example of the Roman plebs. "[69] Machiavelli does think this envy can be eliminated when "either through some strong and difficult accident in which each, seeing himself perishing, puts aside every ambition and runs voluntarily to obey him"[69] or "...when, either by violence or by natural order, those who have been your competitors in coming to some reputation and to some greatness die. [23] Another motivator for conspiracy is when a man feels the desire to free his fatherland from whoever has seized it. Presentazione della vita e delle opere di Niccolò Machiavelli, a cura di Alessandro Mazzini. "[16] He gives examples of particularly great Romans like Horatius Coclus and Gaius Mucius Scaevola who were "of such reputation and so much example that good men desire to imitate them and the wicked are ashamed to hold a life contrary to them. Tema. "[15], Machiavelli begins Chapter 2 declaring that, "There was never anyone so prudent nor esteemed so wise for any eminent work of his than Junius Brutus deserves to be held in his simulation of stupidity. "[67] Machiavelli establishes that "Princes should not complain of any sin that the people whom they have to govern commit, for it must be that such sins arise either by negligence or by his being stained with like errors. Di quante spezie sono le republiche, e di quale fu la republica romana. I Discorsi sopra la prima deca di Tito Livio furono iniziati nel 1513, ripresi tra il 1515 e il 1517 e conclusi nel 1518. He then takes examples of conspiracy to his own time, writing of the conspiracy of the Pazzi against Lorenzo and Giuliano de' Medici. "[75] Machiavelli lists out the methods to do so: "...that it be armed and ordered well, that [its members] know one another. 1. "[81] In a captain demanding of his troop to follow his deeds, not his words, there seems to be great success. "[88] he raises the story of Decius and Fabius, two Roman consuls at war with the Samnites and Etruscans. "[36] They misinterpret this great Roman's deed, however, as according to Machiavelli, it "is nothing other than to say:'Do battle to the enemy's purpose and not yours. Machiavelli then turns his attention toward the renewal of sects, arguing that "...our religion, which would be altogether eliminated if it had not been drawn back toward its beginning by Saint Francis and Saint Dominick. DISCORSI SOPRA LA PRIMA DECA DI TITO LIVIO. 2. Tra il 1519 e il 1521 scrisse Dell'arte della guerra. Tutto parte da un testo-base: la prima Deca della storia di Roma del grande storico latino Tito Livio . "[31] He cites the example of the Romans Spurius Cassius and Manlius Capitolinus. [30], The heading of Chapter 8 is, "Whoever wishes to alter a republic should consider its subject. [24] Machiavelli gives examples of how any man can create a conspiracy, ranging from the nobleman who assassinated King Philip of Macedon to the Spanish peasant who stabbed King Ferdinand in the neck. [82], In Chapter 40, Machiavelli states, "Although the use of fraud in every action is detestable, nonetheless in managing war it is a praiseworthy and glorious thing, and he who overcomes the enemy with fraud is praised as much as the one who overcomes it with force. Tuttavia, poiché tanto la prima quanto le seconde si pretendono ispirate dai Discorsi sopra la prima deca di Tito Livio, sembra indispensabile dire qualcosa degli equivoci in cui, nel corso della sua corsiva lettura della maggiore opera di Niccolò Machiavelli, è caduto l’autore del saggio. Also, Machiavelli gives the reasoning and background information for why these three modes of expanding that the republic took were necessary. Chapter 24 claims that fortresses are generally much more harmful than useful. Chapter 33 talks about how the Romans gave free commissions to their captains of armies. 2, cop.fle., dim. Rome benefited because the office of Dictator was written into the constitution so it could be exercised legitimately and then retired during the emergency. Chapter 27 says for prudent princes and republics, it should be enough to conquer, for most often when it is not enough, one loses. "[14] Before the taking of Rome by the Gauls, the executions of such famous Romans as "the sons of Brutus"[14] or "that of Maelius the grain dealer",[14] because they were "excessive and notable"[14] drew Romans back from any dangerous or tumultuous behavior. I discorsi si dividono in tre libri di complessivi 142 capitoli: ... le sue espansioni territoriali, la conservazione del potere. Chapter 28 says how dangerous it is for a Republic or a Prince not to avenge an injury done against the public or against a private person.